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What is an API Gateway? There has been much ink spilled on the internet on this topic.
I think the NGINX Website sums it up succinctly.
An API gateway takes all API calls from clients, then routes them to the appropriate micro-service with request routing, composition, and protocol translation. Typically it handles a request by invoking multiple micro-services and aggregating the results, to determine the best path. It can translate between web protocols and web‑unfriendly protocols that are used internally.
An e-commerce site might use an API gateway to provide mobile clients with an endpoint for retrieving all product details with a single request. It invokes various services, like product info and reviews, and combines the results.
Here is a diagram that shows that definition.
All of the leading cloud providers have a product that is some form of an “API Gateway” and there are other open source versions as well.
The API Gateway can provide many different benefits that the back-end services may not be able to handle.
personAPI may have SSN but most clients should not see it. The gateway can remove it for certain clients.